Biomass valorisation over polyoxometalate-based catalysts
The efficient utilization of biomass, the only globally available, renewable and abundant carbon-neutral source, is of high significance in green and sustainable chemistry. Polyoxometalates (POMs) and POM-based composites have been widely applied in green catalytic reactions, due to their tunable Brønsted/Lewis-acidity and redox properties enabling high reactivity in a wide range of chemical transformations. This review covers recent advances in the chemocatalytic conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels over POMs and POM–metal composites. For biomass valorisation over POMs, the advances of acid catalysis including hydrolysis, dehydration, etherification, alcoholysis, transesterification and esterification are summarised. Furthermore, applications in chemical oxidation for the synthesis of organic acids and furan chemicals are discussed. For biomass valorisation over metal–POM composites, an overview of tandem reactions (e.g. hydrolysis–hydrogenation, hydrolysis–oxidation, and hydrogenolysis–hydrodeoxygenation) is highlighted. The future prospects of biomass valorisation over POM-based catalysts are finally presented.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Green Chemistry Reviews