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Issue 6, 2021
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Modulation of perovskite crystallization processes towards highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells with MXene quantum dot-modified SnO2

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Abstract

Nanocrystalline tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) electron-transport layers (ETL) have shown great potential for achieving highly efficient, stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs), in particular low-temperature-processed flexible PSCs. Recently, studies have further shown that a modified SnO2 bottom layer facilitates the deposition of highly crystalline perovskite films, boosting the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs. The modulation of perovskite crystallization processes is a key to obtain highly crystalline and stable perovskite films; however, a fundamental understanding is still missing. Herein, we report an in situ synchrotron-based two-dimensional grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction technique to explore the SnO2 ETL-modulated perovskite crystallization kinetics for the first time. The titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx)-MXene quantum dot-modified SnO2 (MQDs-SnO2) ETL was found to be able to rapidly induce perovskite nucleation from the precursor solution, forming an intermediate perovskite phase upon anti-solvent treatment. This substantially improves the crystal quality and phase stability of the as-fabricated perovskite film. Benefiting in addition from the superior charge extraction properties of the MQDs-SnO2 layer, a steady-state power conversion efficiency of up to 23.3%, as well as outstanding stability against humidity and light soaking was achieved for the corresponding PSCs.

Graphical abstract: Modulation of perovskite crystallization processes towards highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells with MXene quantum dot-modified SnO2

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
06 Jan 2021
Accepted
20 Apr 2021
First published
20 Apr 2021

Energy Environ. Sci., 2021,14, 3447-3454
Article type
Paper

Modulation of perovskite crystallization processes towards highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells with MXene quantum dot-modified SnO2

Y. Yang, H. Lu, S. Feng, L. Yang, H. Dong, J. Wang, C. Tian, L. Li, H. Lu, J. Jeong, S. M. Zakeeruddin, Y. Liu, M. Grätzel and A. Hagfeldt, Energy Environ. Sci., 2021, 14, 3447
DOI: 10.1039/D1EE00056J

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