Solution-processed two-dimensional materials for next-generation photovoltaics
In the ever-increasing energy demand scenario, the development of novel photovoltaic (PV) technologies is considered to be one of the key solutions to fulfil the energy request. In this context, graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) materials (GRMs), including nonlayered 2D materials and 2D perovskites, as well as their hybrid systems, are emerging as promising candidates to drive innovation in PV technologies. The mechanical, thermal, and optoelectronic properties of GRMs can be exploited in different active components of solar cells to design next-generation devices. These components include front (transparent) and back conductive electrodes, charge transporting layers, and interconnecting/recombination layers, as well as photoactive layers. The production and processing of GRMs in the liquid phase, coupled with the ability to “on-demand” tune their optoelectronic properties exploiting wet-chemical functionalization, enable their effective integration in advanced PV devices through scalable, reliable, and inexpensive printing/coating processes. Herein, we review the progresses in the use of solution-processed 2D materials in organic solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, quantum dot solar cells, and organic–inorganic hybrid solar cells, as well as in tandem systems. We first provide a brief introduction on the properties of 2D materials and their production methods by solution-processing routes. Then, we discuss the functionality of 2D materials for electrodes, photoactive layer components/additives, charge transporting layers, and interconnecting layers through figures of merit, which allow the performance of solar cells to be determined and compared with the state-of-the-art values. We finally outline the roadmap for the further exploitation of solution-processed 2D materials to boost the performance of PV devices.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Electrochemistry in Energy Storage and Conversion