The electrochemistry of size dependent graphene via liquid phase exfoliation: capacitance and ionic transport†
Recently, graphene-based materials have become ubiquitous in electrochemical devices including electrochemical sensors, electrocatalysts, capacitive and membrane desalination and energy storage devices. However, many of the electrochemical properties of graphene (particularly the capacitance and ionic transport) are not yet fully understood. This paper explores the capacitance and ionic transport properties of size dependent graphene (from 100 nm to 1 μm) prepared through the liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in which the size of graphene was finely selected using a multi-step centrifugation technique. Our experiment was then expanded to include basal plane graphene using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite as a model electrode, describing the assumed theoretical graphene capacitance (quoted as 550 F g−1 or 21 μF cm−2) and the electrochemical surface area of the carbon-based materials. This work improves our understanding of graphene electrochemistry (capacitance and ion transport), which should lead to the continuing development of many high-performance electrochemical devices, especially supercapacitors, capacitive desalination and ion-based selective membranes.