Machine learning for reparameterization of four-site water models: TIP4P-BG and TIP4P-BGT
Parameterizing an effective water model is a challenging issue because of the difficulty in maintaining a comprehensive balance among the diverse physical properties of water with a limited number of parameters. The advancement in machine learning provides a promising path to search for a reliable set of parameters. Based on the TIP4P water model, hence, about 6000 molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for pure water at 1 atm and in the range of 273–373 K are conducted here as the training data. The back-propagation (BP) neural network is then utilized to construct an efficient mapping between the model parameters and four crucial physical properties of water, including the density, vaporization enthalpy, self-diffusion coefficient and viscosity. Without additional time-consuming MD simulations, this mapping operation could result in sufficient and accurate data for high-population genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the model parameters as much as possible. Based on the proposed parameterizing strategy, TIP4P-BG (a conventional four-site water model) and TIP4P-BGT (an advanced model with temperature-dependent parameters) are established. Both the water models exhibit excellent performance with a reasonable balance among the four crucial physical properties. The relevant mean absolute percentage errors are 3.53% and 3.08%, respectively. Further calculations on the temperature of maximum density, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, radial distribution function and surface tension are also performed and the resulting values are in good agreement with the experimental values. Through this water modeling example, the potential of the proposed data-driven machine learning procedure has been demonstrated for parameterizing a MD-based material model.