Issue 11, 2021

Bell inequalities for entangled qubits: quantitative tests of quantum character and nonlocality on quantum computers

Abstract

This work provides quantitative tests of the extent of violation of two inequalities applicable to qubits coupled into Bell states, using IBM's publicly accessible quantum computers. Violations of the inequalities are well established. Our purpose is not to test the inequalities, but rather to determine how well quantum mechanical predictions can be reproduced on quantum computers, given their current fault rates. We present results for the spin projections of two entangled qubits, along three axes A, B, and C, with a fixed angle θ between A and B and a range of angles θ′ between B and C. For any classical object that can be characterized by three observables with two possible values, inequalities govern relationships among the probabilities of outcomes for the observables, taken pairwise. From set theory, these inequalities must be satisfied by all such classical objects; but quantum systems may violate the inequalities. We have detected clear-cut violations of one inequality in runs on IBM's publicly accessible quantum computers. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality governs a linear combination S of expectation values of products of spin projections, taken pairwise. Finding S > 2 rules out local, hidden variable theories for entangled quantum systems. We obtained values of S greater than 2 in our runs prior to error mitigation. To reduce the quantitative errors, we used a modification of the error-mitigation procedure in the IBM documentation. We prepared a pair of qubits in the state |00〉, found the probabilities to observe the states |00〉, |01〉, |10〉, and |11〉 in multiple runs, and used that information to construct the first column of an error matrix M. We repeated this procedure for states prepared as |01〉, |10〉, and |11〉 to construct the full matrix M, whose inverse is the filtering matrix. After applying filtering matrices to our averaged outcomes, we have found good quantitative agreement between the quantum computer output and the quantum mechanical predictions for the extent of violation of both inequalities as functions of θ′.

Graphical abstract: Bell inequalities for entangled qubits: quantitative tests of quantum character and nonlocality on quantum computers

Article information

Article type
Paper
Submitted
16 Oct 2020
Accepted
17 Dec 2020
First published
05 Jan 2021

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2021,23, 6370-6387

Bell inequalities for entangled qubits: quantitative tests of quantum character and nonlocality on quantum computers

D. Z. Wang, A. Q. Gauthier, A. E. Siegmund and K. L. C. Hunt, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2021, 23, 6370 DOI: 10.1039/D0CP05444E

To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given.

If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you want to reproduce the whole article in a third-party publication (excluding your thesis/dissertation for which permission is not required) please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content.

Social activity

Spotlight

Advertisements