Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.

Issue 28, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Hybrid hydrogel films with graphene oxide for continuous saliva-level monitoring

Author affiliations


A glucose-sensitive hydrogel coated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor makes an important integrated system for achieving a continuous glucose monitoring system for diabetes, attributed to its high repeatability, rapid response time, and wide detection range. However, the poor viscoelasticity of the functional hydrogel film usually leads to the transport of water molecules out of the hydrogel matrix owing to the increased crosslinking density by molecular recognition, thus resulting in poor stability and limit of detection (LOD) of the hydrogel-coated QCM sensor, which limits its practical application in the detection of saliva glucose in low concentrations. Herein, this problem is solved by copolymerizing a rigid phenylboronic acid-containing graphene oxide (GO)-based monomer with a glucose-sensitive monomer (i.e., 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (3-APBA)) onto a double bond-modified QCM chip to fabricate a hybrid hydrogel-coated QCM sensor with improved viscoelasticity. Moreover, the 3-aminophenylboronic acid-grafted GO provides more reaction sites toward glucose, which is found to be beneficial for further improving the LOD of the hydrogel-coated QCM sensor. The experimental results show that the LOD of the hybrid hydrogel film (1 mg L−1) is about 10-fold and 900-fold lower than that of the hydrogel film (10 mg L−1) and polymer brushes (900 mg L−1) respectively. This study provides a new approach for continuous sensing of saliva glucose using a highly sensitive hybrid hydrogel-coated QCM sensor with improved properties, which contributes to the diagnosis, monitoring, and formulation of an appropriate treatment plan for patients suffering with diabetes.

Graphical abstract: Hybrid hydrogel films with graphene oxide for continuous saliva-level monitoring

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information

12 Feb 2020
21 May 2020
First published
29 Jun 2020

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020,8, 9655-9662
Article type

Hybrid hydrogel films with graphene oxide for continuous saliva-level monitoring

Z. Zhang, Q. Dou, S. Wang, D. Hu, X. Guo, B. Liao, Z. Zhao, H. Liu and Q. Dai, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 9655
DOI: 10.1039/D0TC00725K

Social activity

Search articles by author