Metal–organic framework-derived CdS–NiO heterostructures with modulated morphology and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity in pure water†
A rational design of the morphology and configuration of the photocatalyst heterostructure is of great importance for solar energy conversion. This work reported the uniform distribution of CdS nanoparticles over the MOF-derived porous NiO skeleton, thanks to the PVP surface modification, with the residual carbon acting as a conductive medium of charge carriers. The formation of CdS-porous NiO exhibited an excellent photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of 7.12 mmol h−1 g−1, and was further improved to 14.25 mmol h−1 g−1 after the PVP surface modification. Impressively, even in the absence of a sacrificial agent, the well-dispersed CdS–NiO heterostructure exhibited a photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of 29.92 and 6.83 μmol h−1 g−1 with the production of a considerable amount of H2O2 under UV-visible and visible light irradiation, respectively.