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Issue 11, 2020
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Photon upconversion afterglow materials toward visualized information coding/decoding

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Abstract

The development of a luminescent material with visualized afterglow plays a crucial role in information security. Herein, a long-lived phosphor, KCaF3:Yb3+,Mn2+, with a visualized photon upconversion (UC) afterglow is presented. The UC emission spectrum consists of a high color purity (∼99.33%) yellow emission band peaking at ∼570 nm, and the UC afterglow signal can be observed by the naked eye in both bright and dark fields even at a high temperature of 200 °C. Moreover, the demonstration background and pigments have little influence on the UC afterglow identification. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the up-/down-conversion luminescence characteristics suggest that the UC afterglow originates from the long-lived exchange coupled Yb3+–Mn2+ dimers formed in KCaF3:Yb3+,Mn2+, which is independent of the conventional “afterglow trap”. The random distribution characteristics of Mn2+, and the oxygen ion (O2−) introduced by Yb3+ non-equivalent doping are the key factors for forming the efficient UC emission center in this system. Using the photon UC afterglow phosphor in screen printing ink, a visualized information encoding/decoding prototype suitable for both human and machine fast identification is demonstrated.

Graphical abstract: Photon upconversion afterglow materials toward visualized information coding/decoding

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
12 Dec 2019
Accepted
02 Feb 2020
First published
03 Feb 2020

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020,8, 3678-3687
Article type
Paper

Photon upconversion afterglow materials toward visualized information coding/decoding

X. Han, E. Song, Y. Zhou, T. Hu, Z. Xia and Q. Zhang, J. Mater. Chem. C, 2020, 8, 3678
DOI: 10.1039/C9TC06785J

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