Biomimetic two-dimensional nanozymes: synthesis, hybridization, functional tailoring, and biosensor applications
Biological enzymes play important roles in mediating the biological reactions in vitro and in vivo due to their high catalytic activity, strong bioactivity, and high specificity; however, they have also some disadvantages such as high cost, low environmental stability, weak reusability, and difficult production. To overcome these shortcomings, functional nanomaterials including metallic nanoparticles, single atoms, metal oxides, alloys, and others have been utilized as nanozymes to mimic the properties and functions of natural enzymes. Due to the development of the synthesis and applications of two-dimensional (2D) materials, 2D nanomaterials have shown high potential to be used as novel nanozymes in biosensing, bioimaging, therapy, logic gates, and environmental remediation due to their unique physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties. In this work, we summarize recent advances in the preparation and functionalization, as well as biosensor and immunoassay applications of various 2D material-based nanozymes. To achieve this aim, first we demonstrate the preparation strategies of 2D nanozymes such as chemical reduction, templated synthesis, chemical exfoliation, calcination, electrochemical deposition, hydrothermal synthesis, and many others. Meanwhile, the structure and properties of the 2D nanozymes prepared by conjugating 2D materials with nanoparticles, metal oxides, biomolecules, polymers, ions, and 2D heteromaterials are introduced and discussed in detail. Then, the applications of the prepared 2D nanozymes in colorimetric, electrochemical, fluorescent, and electrochemiluminescent sensors are demonstrated.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles