Supramolecular Ensembles Modified by Near-infrared Dyes and Their Biological Application
Near-infrared dyes with the ability of less interference of biological autofluorescence, low photon scattering and deep tissue penetration have become an increasing role in development of biomaterials in sensing and precision medicine. However, dyes usually suffer from poor water solubility and photobleaching that limited their application in vivo. The introduction of supramolecular have been identified as an ideal solution. Herein, we will review the recently developed supramolecular ensembles modified by near-infrared dyes. Compared with small molecular fluorophores, the specific size of supramolecular-based fluorophores endows it with longer blood circulation time, increasing its chances of reaching a specific target. In addition, the construction of supramolecular-based fluorophores with versatile functions can be achieved by simple encapsulation or doping instead of complicated chemical synthesis. Therefore, supramolecular-based fluorophores have high potential in the diagnose and therapy. This review will be classified into four different species according to the formation method of near-infrared dyes based ensembles, including simple encapsulation or doping and copolymerization. Recently, a new technology emerged employing modified fluorophores to in situ self-assembly to form supramolecular ensembles at specific position, which succeeds in solving the defect of poor uptake of nanoparticles by cells. Thus, this part will also be included in this review. Finally, the future of this field will be outlooked in this review.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Journal of Materials Chemistry B HOT Papers and Journal of Materials Chemistry B Recent Review Articles