Specifiable biomimetic microsponges for timed release of crystal entrapped biomolecules useful in bone repair†
Most marine materials, by nature, contain crystals of inorganic matter with specific structures that allow the loading, release, and delivery of biomolecules that can be utilized in clinical applications. These structures can be biomimetically synthesized. Aggregates of inorganic particles generated by biomimetic microsponges may provide surfaces and structures for cell attachment, organization, and promotion of matrix synthesis. Biomimetic microsponges have been developed with tunable release profiles differing by the rate (speed over distance), velocity (rate of change in direction), and the quantity discharged over time, according to biomolecular species. Specifically, the types of proteins involved guide and regulate cells in physical contact with the microsponges, for instance, reprogramming somatic cells, the switching phenotypes, or specifying stem cell differentiation. Applications for these microsponges include gene transfection of localized cells and promotion of bone matrix synthesis by the externalized display of RGD cell adhesive peptides and the release of crystal entrapped, occluded, adsorbed and infused rhBMP-2 and plasmid. A requirement for de novo bone formation is a solid structure to enable osteocytes to lay new bone tissue. In this study, biomimetic microsponges highlight tremendous potential as osteoconductive packing material in bone repair with parallel influence on regeneration. Majorly, microsponges offer pronounced osteoinductivity, unlike many other bone particulates, by solid-state integration of active regenerative biological molecules through the prism of the biomineral crystalline structure.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Recent Open Access Articles