Stabilized albumin coatings on engineered xenografts for attenuation of acute immune and inflammatory responses†
Xenogeneic grafts are promising candidates for transplantation therapy due to their easily accessible sources. Nevertheless, the immune and inflammatory responses induced by xenografts need to be addressed for clinical use. A novel and facile method was introduced for the attenuation of immune and inflammatory responses by extending the immune evasion potential of albumin to the tissue engineering field and coating albumin, which could passivate biomaterial surfaces, onto xenografts. Albumin was first modified by dopamine to enhance its adhesion on graft surfaces. Porcine chondrocytes derived living hyaline cartilage graft (LhCG) and decellularized LhCG (dLhCG) were applied as xenograft models implanted in the omentum of rats. Both LhCG which contained porcine chondrocytes as well as secreted ECM and dLhCG which was mainly composed of the porcine source ECM showed alleviated immune and inflammatory responses after being coated with albumin at cell, protein and gene levels, respectively. Significantly less inflammatory cells including neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were recruited according to pathological analysis and immunohistochemistry staining with lower gene expression encoding inflammation-related cytokines including MCP-1, IL-6 and IL-1β after employing LhCG and dLhCG with albumin passivation coating.