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Enhanced luminescence intensity of near-infrared-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles via Ca2+ doping for a nitric oxide release platform

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Abstract

Light-induced NO release based on exogenous NO donors has attracted substantial attention in clinical applications; the induction light source usually converts near-infrared light to blue or ultraviolet light. However, the low efficiency of near-infrared light-assisted chemical light energy conversion remains a challenge, especially for NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ photoconverting near-infrared light to ultraviolet (UV) and blue light. In this paper, a luminescence-enhanced strategy is reported by doping Ca2+ into NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ and coating it with NaGdF4 through a two-step solvothermal method. Then, UCNPs modified with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CD) are loaded on a ruthenium nitrosyl complex [(3)Ru(NO)(Cl)] as nitric oxide release-molecules (NORMs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data demonstrated that Ca2+ was successfully doped into NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoparticles as the core, and a pure hexagonal phase, NaYF4, was obtained from the doping of Ca2+. TEM revealed that the crystallinity was significantly improved after Ca2+ doping, and the core–shell structure was successfully synthesized, with NaGdF4 directionally grown on the NaYF4:Ca/Yb/Tm core. Fluorescence tests showed that, especially in the ultraviolet and blue light excitation wavelength regions, the UC emission intensity of the Ca-doped NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+@NaGdF4 core–shell UCNPs increased by 302.95 times vs. NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ UCNPs. Finally, the release of NO was tested by the Griess method. Under 980 nm irradiation, the cell viability distinctly decreased with increasing UCNPs@M-β-CD-NORMs concentration. This study shows that NORM release of NO is triggered by enhanced up-converted UV and blue light, which can be used for the development of UV photo-sensitive drugs.

Graphical abstract: Enhanced luminescence intensity of near-infrared-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles via Ca2+ doping for a nitric oxide release platform

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
14 Jan 2020
Accepted
12 Jun 2020
First published
13 Jun 2020

J. Mater. Chem. B, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Enhanced luminescence intensity of near-infrared-sensitized upconversion nanoparticles via Ca2+ doping for a nitric oxide release platform

J. Zhao, Y. Hu, S. W. Lin, U. Resch-Genger, R. Zhang, J. Wen, X. Kong, A. Qin and J. Ou, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0TB00088D

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