The synergistic promotion of osseointegration by nanostructure design and silicon substitution of hydroxyapatite coatings in a diabetic model
Accumulating evidence indicates much higher failure rates for biomedical titanium implants in diabetic patients. This phenomenon is attributed to impaired osteoblastic function, suppressed angiogenesis capacity, and abnormal osteoclast activation in diabetic patients. Our previous study demonstrated that titanium implants coated with highly crystalline nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA) promoted the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and bone–implant osseointegration under healthy conditions. Furthermore, recent studies showed that silicon-substituted biomaterials exhibited excellent osteogenesis and angiogenesis performance while repressing osteoclastogenesis. Hence, we proposed that a combination of nanostructural modification and Si substitution might produce synergetic effects to mitigate the impaired osseointegration of bone implants under diabetes mellitus (DM) conditions. To confirm this hypothesis, titanium implants coated with highly crystalline Si-substituted nHA (Si-nHA) were successfully fabricated via atmospheric plasma spraying combined with hydrothermal treatment. An in vitro study demonstrated that compared to the original HA coating, the nHA coating improved osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation and altered the OPG/RANKL ratio of DM-BMSCs. In addition, the Si-nHA coating further enhanced cell proliferation, improved osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation, and repressed osteoclastogenesis in DM-BMSCs. An in vivo study confirmed that the titanium implants coated with nHA or Si-nHA effectively promoted bone formation and bone–implant osseointegration in a diabetic rabbit model, with the Si-nHA coating exhibiting the best stimulatory effect. Collectively, the results suggest that the nanostructured topography and Si substitution act synergistically to ameliorate the poor bone regeneration and osseointegration associated with DM. Thus, the results provide a promising coating method for dental and orthopedic applications under diabetic conditions.