Protein corona formation and its influence on biomimetic magnetite nanoparticles†
Biomimetic magnetite nanoparticles (BMNPs) synthesized in the presence of MamC, a magnetosome-associated protein from Magnetoccus marinus MC-1, have gained interest for biomedical applications because of their unique magnetic properties. However, their behavior in biological systems, like their interaction with proteins, still has to be evaluated prior to their use in clinics. In this study, doxorubicin (DOXO) as a model drug was adsorbed onto BMNPs to form nanoassemblies. These were incubated with human plasma to trigger protein corona (PC) formation. Proteins from the human plasma stably attached to either BMNPs or DOXO-BMNP nanoassemblies. In particular, fibrinogen was detected as the main component in the PC of DOXO-BMNPs that potentially provides advantages, e.g. protecting the particles from phagocytosis, thus prolonging their circulation time. Adsorption of PC to the BMNPs did not alter their magnetic properties but improved their colloidal stability, thus reducing their toxicity in human macrophages. In addition, PC formation enhanced cellular internalization and did not interfere with DOXO activity. Overall, our data indicate that the adsorption of PC onto DOXO-BMNPs in biological environment even increases their efficiency as drug carrier systems.