Nanomaterials-based biosensors for DNA methyltransferase assay
DNA methyltransferases are responsible for catalyzing the methylation of adenine/cytosine residues in specific region of genome, and participate in the establishment of epigenetic modification patterns. Deregulation of DNA methyltransferase activity will disturb the DNA methylation systems, leading to the occurrence of various human diseases including cancers. Moreover, DNA methyltransferases may serve as the promising therapeutic targets, and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have been used for disease treatment. Therefore, the detection of DNA methyltransferase and screening of their inhibitors are crucial for both fundamental biomedical researches and clinical practice. Due to their excellent size-dependent optical, chemical, electronic, and mechanical features, nanomaterials have been widely used as the powerful building materials to construct efficient biosensors for DNA methyltransferase assay with high sensitivity and good selectivity. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for DNA methyltransferases assay including their strategies, features and applications, and highlight the future direction and challenges in this area as well.