Boosting biomolecular interactions through DNA origami nano-tailored biosensing interfaces†
The interaction between a bioreceptor and its target is key in developing sensitive, specific and robust diagnostic devices. Suboptimal interbioreceptor distances and bioreceptor orientation on the sensor surface, resulting from uncontrolled deposition, impede biomolecular interactions and lead to a decreased biosensor performance. In this work, we studied and implemented a 3D DNA origami design, for the first time comprised of assay specifically tailored anchoring points for the nanostructuring of the bioreceptor layer on the surface of disc-shaped microparticles in the continuous microfluidic environment of the innovative EvalutionTM platform. This bioreceptor immobilization strategy resulted in the formation of a less densely packed surface with reduced steric hindrance and favoured upward orientation. This increased bioreceptor accessibility led to a 4-fold enhanced binding kinetics and a 6-fold increase in binding efficiency compared to a directly immobilized non-DNA origami reference system. Moreover, the DNA origami nanotailored biosensing concept outperformed traditional aptamer coupling with respect to limit of detection (11 × improved) and signal-to-noise ratio (2.5 × improved) in an aptamer-based sandwich bioassay. In conclusion, our results highlight the potential of these DNA origami nanotailored surfaces to improve biomolecular interactions at the sensing surface, thereby increasing the overall performance of biosensing devices. The combination of the intrinsic advantages of DNA origami together with a smart design enables bottom-up nanoscale engineering of the sensor surface, leading towards the next generation of improved diagnostic sensing devices.