Compositional engineering of sulfides, phosphides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, and hydroxides for water splitting
Global environmental and energy crises have attracted wide attention and led to ongoing efforts to search for sustainable energy storage and conversion systems that can meet the energy needs of modern society. Electrocatalytic water splitting driven by renewable-energy-resource-derived electricity has been identified as a potential and practical strategy for future energy generation. Exploring nonprecious-metal-based electrocatalysts with high activity and tolerance is the prerequisite for the widespread application of this energy storage model. Heteroatom-regulated electrocatalysts with controllable components as well as electronic structure have unlimited potential toward the pursuit of high-efficiency electrocatalysts and they have been recognized as the perfect platform for establishing clear structure–property relationships. Therefore, in this review, the compositional engineering of recently reported transition-metal-compound-based water-splitting catalysts with multiple anion, cation, and zero-valent-element regulations were summarized. Particular emphasis is placed on the unique role of different doping configurations for each doping type in enhancing the electrocatalytic activities and stability of heteroatom-regulated electrocatalysts by exposing the active sites, regulating the electronic structure, and promoting the electrical conductivity. Finally, some personal perspectives on the design and development of heteroatom-doped electrocatalysts are shared to indicate the possible prospective development of transition-metal-compound-based electrocatalysts.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles