Intercalation and Exfoliation Chemistry of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
Large scale preparation of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is of great importance due to its potential applications, such as catalysis, electronics, energy storage and conversion. In order to meet the application requirements, TMDs nanosheets should be mass-produced with high yield, uniform size and good quality. Lots of strategies have been developed to prepare 2D TMDs, such as mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, and liquid exfoliation, etc. Liquid exfoliation, which includes direct exfoliation and intercalation based exfoliation, is a promising method, since it can be employed for mass production, structure modification as well as 2D TMDs composites fabrication. Intercalation can expand interlayer spacing, weaken the Van der Walls force and change the host materials’ structure. Exfoliation can break Van der Walls force between adjacent layers through some external strengths. However, the detailed mechanism during intercalation and exfoliation is not clear, which limit their potential application. This review aims to give a comprehensive summarize on intercalation and exfoliation process of layered materials, as well as their properties and applications. Our main attention is the underlying reaction mechanism during chemical or electrochemical intercalation as well as exfoliation process. Applications of 2D TMDs from exfoliation are also introduced in this review. In the last part, we provide some perspective on fundamental research and practical application of the TMDs.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles