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Direct observation of continuous networks of ‘sol–gel’ processed metal oxide thin film for organic and perovskite photovoltaic modules with long-term stability

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Abstract

‘Sol–gel’-processed transition metal oxide (TMO) thin films sandwiched by an organic photoactive layer and metal electrodes have proven to be a versatile interlayer for photovoltaics with long-term stability on the laboratory scale; however, chemical defects and dewetting (or shrinkage) processes during sol–gel synthesis on top of the photoactive layer often cause performance variations, impeding the development of large-area photovoltaic modules. Here, we demonstrate that a low surface energy difference at the organic interface allows long-range diffusion of metal ion precursors to promote continuous chemical synthesis associated with oxo-bridge formation. Using high-resolution Auger electron spectroscopy, we confirm that the resultant TMO thin film on top of the suitable surface has a defect-free and continuous metal–oxygen network (MON) with a high oxygen/metal ratio. Our findings can be applied to obtain organic/perovskite photovoltaic modules having long-term stability, approaching an efficiency of 4.2%/14.5% and maintaining over 80% of their initial efficiency for up to 1500 hours/2000 hours with an area of 10.8 cm2/9.06 cm2.

Graphical abstract: Direct observation of continuous networks of ‘sol–gel’ processed metal oxide thin film for organic and perovskite photovoltaic modules with long-term stability

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Article information


Submitted
11 Mar 2020
Accepted
24 May 2020
First published
26 May 2020

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Direct observation of continuous networks of ‘sol–gel’ processed metal oxide thin film for organic and perovskite photovoltaic modules with long-term stability

S. Hong, G. Kim, B. Park, J. Kim, J. Kim, Y. Pak, J. Kim, S. Kwon and K. Lee, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0TA02813D

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