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Composite sodium metal anodes for practical applications

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Abstract

With its high theoretical capacity (1165 mA h g−1), low reduction potential (−2.71 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode) and abundant resources in the earth's crust, a Na anode exhibits great potential in grid-scale energy storage systems and extensive application of electric vehicles. Nevertheless, its practical application is still hindered by its dendrite-related hazards, together with severe side reactions and infinite volume change during plating/stripping processes. Among various strategies, constructing a composite sodium anode stands out in virtue of its unique role in mitigating volume fluctuation, lowering the current density and providing numerous nucleation sites for homogeneous Na+ plating. Herein, current progress in making a composite sodium metal anode is reviewed in terms of carbon-based scaffolds, carbon-based interlayers, carbon-based current collectors, metal-based scaffolds and mixed ion/electron-conducting scaffolds for practical applications. Finally, perspectives on its future development and important factors concerning its commercialization for high-energy-density sodium metal batteries are provided.

Graphical abstract: Composite sodium metal anodes for practical applications

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Article information


Submitted
02 Mar 2020
Accepted
07 May 2020
First published
12 May 2020

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Review Article

Composite sodium metal anodes for practical applications

J. Cui, A. Wang, G. Li, D. Wang, D. Shu, A. Dong, G. Zhu, J. Luo and B. Sun, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0TA02469D

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