Composite sodium metal anodes for practical application
With its high theoretical capacity (1165 mAh g-1), low reduction potential (-2.71 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) and abundance in earth crust, Na anode exhibits a great potential in grid-scale energy storage system and extensive application of electric vehicles. Nevertheless, its practical employment is still hindered by its dendrite-related hazards, together with sever side reactions and infinite volume change during plating/stripping process. Among various strategies, constructing a composite sodium anode stands out in virtue of its unique role in mitigating volume fluctuation, lessening the current density and providing numerous nucleation sites for homogenous Na+ plating. Herein, current progresses for making composite sodium metal anode are reviewed in terms of carbon-based scaffolds, carbon-based interlayers, carbon-based current collectors, metal based scaffolds and mixed ion/electron-conducting scaffolds for practical application. Finally, perspective for its future development and important factors concerning its commercialization for high-energy-density sodium metal batteries are provided.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles