Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.

Issue 21, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Electrochromic and energy storage bifunctional Gd-doped WO3/Ag/WO3 films

Author affiliations


In this study, using gadolinium (Gd) as a dopant, Gd-WO3/Ag/Gd-WO3 (WGd–Ag–WGd) transparent conductive films with improved electrochromic (EC) and energy storage performance were fabricated on glass substrates by reactive sputtering. The EC performance and sheet resistance of WGd–Ag–WGd are shown to be sensitive to the concentration of the Gd dopant. The optimized structure for transparent conducting (TC) coating is obtained to be Gd-WO3 (52 nm)/Ag (12 nm)/Gd-WO3 (42 nm) with a luminous transmittance of 82.7% and a sheet resistance of 3.4 Ω sq−1 at a modest Gd doping concentration of 0.29 at%. Such a film (sample size of 1 cm × 3 cm) exhibits luminous transmittance modulation (ΔTlum = 49.6%), high coloration efficiency (71.4 cm2 C−1 at 633 nm), fast switching time (1.6 s for coloring and 3.2 s for bleaching time), and long-term cycling stability (2000 cycles) with an applied potential of ±1.0 V. By combining the film structure characterization and electrochemical analysis, such a decent performance can be attributed to the embedded island structured monoclinic Gd2O3 on the surface of WO3 which enhanced charge capacity and reaction kinetics compared with undoped amorphous WO3 films. Moreover, the WGd–Ag–WGd films showed superior capacitive capability with a maximum specific capacitance of 124.7 F g−1 at 2 A g−1, suggesting their potential application in electrochemical energy storage (ECES) devices.

Graphical abstract: Electrochromic and energy storage bifunctional Gd-doped WO3/Ag/WO3 films

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Article information

21 Feb 2020
01 May 2020
First published
04 May 2020

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020,8, 10973-10982
Article type

Electrochromic and energy storage bifunctional Gd-doped WO3/Ag/WO3 films

Y. Yin, T. Gao, Q. Xu, G. Cao, Q. Chen, H. Zhu, C. Lan and C. Li, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, 8, 10973
DOI: 10.1039/D0TA02079F

Social activity

Search articles by author