Application of polyoxometalate derivatives in rechargeable batteries
The early transition metal (such as Mo, W, and V) based materials are promising candidates for electrochemical rechargeable batteries on account of their high valence state, unique crystal structures, and thermal stability. In this case, as a kind of well-defined inorganic nanocluster composed of early transition metals and oxygen atoms, polyoxometalates (POMs) are appropriate precursors to generate such emerging early transition metal based electrode materials. Benefiting from the inherent diversiform structures of POMs, the abundant metal and oxygen atoms in these inorganic clusters can not only supply metal sources, but also provide possibility for constructing porous architectures by releasing oxygen atoms at pyrolysis process. Furthermore, there are advantageous synergistic effects when POMs are composited with other matrix precursors (such as polymers or carbon materials). On the other hand, the inherent heteroatoms of POMs can conveniently offer various kinds of heteroatom-doping (such as P, Si, Ge, Se, or Sb) for the final electrode materials, which can further promote the electrochemical performances by their lone pair electrons or empty orbitals. Recently, such POM-derived electrode materials have attracted widespread attention primarily because of the convenient syntheses. This kind of effort provides the possibility to significantly alleviate the common problems of metal-based electrode materials, such as fast capacity decay, volume change, or phase transformation. In this review, the latest relevant researches focusing on POM derivatives for rechargeable batteries are systematically summarized, including their syntheses, structures, electrochemical performances and charge-storage mechanisms. Remarks on the challenges and future perspectives of such POM-derived materials are also discussed and proposed, providing an emerging vision for the rational design and construction of novel electrode materials towards rechargeable batteries.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles