A comprehensive review on oxidative desulfurization catalysts targeting clean energy and environment
Harvesting clean energy from fuel feedstocks is of paramount significance in the field of environmental science. In this dynamic area, desulfurization provides a valuable contribution by eliminating sulfur compounds from fuel feedstocks to ensure the utilization of fuels without the emission of toxic sulfur oxides (SOx gases). Nonetheless, the inadequacy of the current industrial technique (hydrodesulfurization, HDS) in the removal of refractory sulfur (RS) compounds and the stringent rules imposed on the fuel sulfur level have kindled research on other desulfurization methods like oxidative desulfurization (ODS). With the capacity of eliminating RS compounds under mild conditions, ODS is endorsed as a suitable replacement or complementary to HDS. ODS, in general, consists of two steps: (i) oxidation and (ii) extraction. The oxidation of sulfur compounds is carried out using a suitable catalyst (hereafter termed as an ODS catalyst) in the presence of an oxidant. Choosing a suitable ODS catalyst for industrial applications is still a quest among the various types of catalysts reported so far. With this outline, herein, all the types of ODS catalysts along with their synthetic methods, reactivity and mechanistic insights are reviewed. The activity of ODS catalysts could be influenced by factors like the type of RS compound, solvent, fuel, etc. and those factors are reviewed. The effects of ionic liquids, light, and ultrasound on the performance of ODS catalysts are also briefly summarized. The opportunities and challenges for ODS catalysts are comprehensively explicated in the end. Through this review, systematic information about the types of ODS catalysts including the basic definition, preparative methods, reactivity and mechanism can be comprehended. Furthermore, this review reveals the merits and demerits related to highlighting catalytic ODS as a replacement or complementary to HDS.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Journal of Materials Chemistry A Recent Review Articles