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Covalent grafting of p-phenylenediamine molecules onto a “bubble-like” carbon surface for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors

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Abstract

Traditional positive electrode materials consisting of transition metal oxides, sulfides, hydroxides, and conductive polymers exhibit ultra-high capacitances for asymmetric supercapacitors. However, negative electrode materials are rather poor. Herein, we report a simple but efficient template carbonization method to covalently graft p-phenylenediamine molecules onto a hollow “bubble-like” carbon sphere (PPD–BC) surface as the negative electrode for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors. In this strategy, the “bubble-like” carbon spheres can not only act as “reservoirs” to physically store pseudocapacitance additive p-phenylenediamine (PPD) molecules through a spatially constrained behavior, but also chemically confine the PPD using CO–NH chemically covalent bonds. As a result, the specific capacitance of PPD–BC (451 F g−1) is about three times higher than that of hollow bubble carbon (166 F g−1) due to the extra addition of faradaic reactions. More importantly, the as-assembled PPD–BC//Ni(OH)2 asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a remarkably high energy density of 94 W h kg−1 at a power density of 423 W kg−1, as well as outstanding cycling performance with 88% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. Therefore, the design of organic molecule modified carbon materials holds great promise for ultrahigh energy density storage devices.

Graphical abstract: Covalent grafting of p-phenylenediamine molecules onto a “bubble-like” carbon surface for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
14 Nov 2019
Accepted
16 Dec 2019
First published
19 Dec 2019

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Covalent grafting of p-phenylenediamine molecules onto a “bubble-like” carbon surface for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors

C. Huangfu, Z. Liu, Q. Zhou, L. Wang, T. Wei, Z. Qiu, S. Zhang and Z. Fan, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9TA12532A

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