Self-supported TiN nanorod array/carbon textile as a lithium host that induces dendrite-free lithium plating with high rates and long cycle life†
Fabrication of a stable dendrite-free Li metal anode that accommodates very large volume changes is urgently needed for the development of advanced lithium metal batteries. Herein, an integrated Li/TiN/carbon textile anode (LTNC) is fabricated in which lithium is hosted in a self-supported TiN nanorod array with high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, and porous structure. The as-prepared LTNC anode achieves outstanding electrochemical performance with a low overpotential of 50 mV and stable cycling for 1000 h at 1 mA cm−2, 1 mA h cm−2, and even at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2 it shows highly stable performance with a low overpotential. When paired with a LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 cathode, the assembled cells display enhanced capacity retention of 85% after 500 cycles at 1C and improved coulombic efficiency. Furthermore, a high capacity of 2.3 mA h cm−2 with a capacity retention of 92% is maintained at 1 mA cm−2 after 100 cycles when the negative to positive electrode capacity ratio is only ∼3.5. This work indicates that the structural engineering of Li metal is highly applicable for lithium metal batteries with high rates and long cycle life.