Fundamentals of soft thermofluidic system design†
The soft composition of many natural thermofluidic systems allows them to effectively move heat and control its transfer rate by dynamically changing shape (e.g. dilation or constriction of capillaries near our skin). So far, making analogous deformable “soft thermofluidic systems” has been limited by the low thermal conductivity of materials with suitable mechanical properties. By remaining soft and stretchable despite the addition of filler, elastomer composites with thermal conductivity enhanced by liquid-metal micro-droplets provide an ideal material for this application. In this work, we use these materials to develop an elementary thermofluidic system consisting of a soft, heat generating pipe that is internally cooled with flow of water and explore its thermal behavior as it undergoes large shape change. The transient device shape change invalidates many conventional assumptions employed in thermal design making analysis of this devices’ operation a non-trivial undertaking. To this end, using time scale analysis we demonstrate when the conventional assumptions break down and highlight conditions under which the quasi-static assumption is applicable. In this gradual shape modulation regime the actuated devices’ thermal behavior at a given stretch approaches that of a static device with equivalent geometry. We validate this time scale analysis by experimentally characterizing thermo-fluidic behavior of our soft system as it undergoes axial periodic extension–retraction at varying frequencies during operation. By doing so we explore multiple shape modulation regimes and provide a theoretical foundation to be used in the design of soft thermofluidic systems undergoing transient deformation.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Liquid Composites