Temperature-regulated adhesion of impacting drops on nano/microtextured monostable superrepellent surfaces†
The monostable Cassie state is a favorable wetting state for superhydrophobic materials, in which water drops can automatically transfer from the Wenzel wetting state to the Cassie wetting state, such that as a consequence the water repellency can be maintained. Drop impact phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and of critical importance in industry, and previous works show that the efficiency of self-cleaning and dropwise condensation could benefit from drop impact on monostable surfaces. However, whether such a feature is sufficiently robust remains unclear when the temperature of the surface is taken into consideration. Here, we report that there exists a lower bound of the temperature of the surface, under which a transition from the Cassie wetting state to the Wenzel wetting state arises. By varying the temperature of the surface, it is found that the solid–liquid wetting region could be regulated. Based on thermodynamics, we propose a model to predict the controllable wetting region, and we show that the gradual transition of the wetting state is a result of the accumulation of droplets on the nanoscale. Connections between the dynamics occurring at the solid–liquid interfaces on the microscale and the condensation occurring in the nanotextures are constructed. These results deepen our understanding of the breakdown of superhydrophobicity under dynamic impinging in high humidity. Moreover, this study will shed new light on the applications for controllable liquid deposition and surface decoration, such as catalysts on the superhydrophobic surfaces.