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Nongeminate Charge Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics


Charge recombination is a major loss process in state-of-the-art organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Nongeminate recombination (NGR) is typically in competition with collection of photogenerated charge carriers to each electrode not only at the short-circuit but also at the open-circuit conditions, and therefore impacts on both external quantum efficiency (EQE) and fill factor (FF). In most cases, therefore, the optimised active layers are kept as thin as possible (typically ~100 nm) to avoid NGR loss although it is not thick enough to absorb the solar light effectively. As such, a key to efficient EQE and FF is suppressing NGR beyond limitations arising from the Langevin recombination. In addition, NGR is closely related to open-circuit voltage (VOC) as well. In particular, nonradiative NGR is a critical loss process in OPVs. In this review, we aim to summarise our current understanding of underlying photophysics that governs NGR in OPVs. Recent experimental results and proposed mechanisms relevant to NGR are summarised where we highlight the significant importance of morphology and energetics for suppressing NGR. These insights will provide a comprehensive understanding of the recombination and future materials/devices design principles.

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Article information

26 Feb 2020
19 Jun 2020
First published
24 Jun 2020

Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2020, Accepted Manuscript
Article type
Review Article

Nongeminate Charge Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

T. Fukuhara, Y. Tamai and H. Ohkita, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2020, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/D0SE00310G

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