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Destructive reverse bias pinning in perovskite/silicon tandem solar modules caused by perovskite hysteresis under dynamic shading

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Abstract

We demonstrate how perovskite hysteresis can result in permanent reductions in power output in perovskite/silicon tandem modules—including irreversible hotspot-induced damage—from only brief periods of shading. We show that reverse bias events in which a perovskite cell is biased above a threshold voltage—which in this work we find to be as low as −1.1 V—produces a temporary reduction in power output that is of sufficient magnitude to keep the cell pinned in reverse bias after the shading event ends. As a hysteretic phenomena, this crucial failure mode may be overlooked by static models of perovskite-based solar cells. Higher reverse bias voltages exacerbate the temporary reduction in short-circuit photocurrent, which is also sensitive to the level of illumination under reverse bias. Numerical device modelling demonstrates that this effect is consistent with our understanding of perovskite hysteresis as a consequence of mobile ion-electron coupling controlling rates of non-radiative recombination over time. Measurements of the dynamic response of single-junction perovskite cells are extrapolated to two-terminal and four-terminal perovskite/silicon tandem module modelling. We validate these models with measurements from an equivalent electronic circuit that represents a two-terminal perovskite–silicon tandem mini module. Two module-level solutions are discussed that address this issue, which includes increasing the number of bypass diodes and choosing better suited silicon bottom cells with higher shunter resistance in two-terminal tandem modules.

Graphical abstract: Destructive reverse bias pinning in perovskite/silicon tandem solar modules caused by perovskite hysteresis under dynamic shading

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
17 Dec 2019
Accepted
01 Jun 2020
First published
09 Jun 2020

Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Destructive reverse bias pinning in perovskite/silicon tandem solar modules caused by perovskite hysteresis under dynamic shading

J. Qian, M. Ernst, D. Walter, M. A. Mahmud, P. Hacke, K. Weber, M. Al-Jassim and A. Blakers, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9SE01246J

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