A review on silicon-nanowires-based anodes for next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries from a material-based perspective
Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is an efficient electrochemical energy storage device with high voltage, long life and good safety, etc. Silicon has a high theoretical specific capacity (4200 mAh g−1), which is considered as a promising anode material for the next-generation LIBs. However, the huge volume change (400%) of Si material during lithiation/delithiation processes must destroy the material structure, which greatly reduces the initial coulombic efficiency, cycle stability and rate performance of the battery. Constructing nanostructured Si, especially silicon nanowires (SiNWs), can help to address the above issues. It is important to further improve the electrochemical performance by incorporating some additives to the SiNWs-based electrodes. Therefore, this review focuses primarily on SiNWs-based materials as the anodes for LIBs from a material-based perspective. Various materials incorporated into SiNWs-based anodes through doping or compositing are reported. The electrochemical effects of diverse additives, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, polymers, Si-based materials and other special substances, are comprehensively reviewed.