Increasing efficiency of perovskite solar cells using low concentrating photovoltaic systems†
Perovskite solar cell (PSC) technology is the flag bearer for the future of photovoltaics allowing unlimited possibilities for its application. This technology is currently limited by issues related to its scale-up, stability and the composition of the materials used in its preparation. Using small sized solar cells with higher efficiency under solar concentration is gaining traction as a methodology for scaling up this technology and broadening its applications. However, this has only been reported in devices with size <1 mm2 neglecting the series resistance of the device. Here, we report the performance of a 9 mm2 PSC at varying solar concentration levels and correlate it with the series resistance of the solar cell. The n–i–p structured device using a triple cation perovskite absorber with a mesoporous titanium oxide/SnO2 layer as the electron transporting layer and Spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transporting material achieved a peak efficiency of 21.6% under 1.78 Suns as compared to the 21% obtained under 1 Sun (1000W m−2) and AM1.5G. We further boosted the power output up to 15.88 mW under 10.7 Suns compared to the 1.88 mW obtained under 1 Sun; however this results in an actual efficiency drop of the PSC owing to the device series resistance. Further, we investigated the impact of the increasing solar cell temperature at higher concentration levels and identified the influence of series resistance on the performance of the PSC. Our work identifies the potential of concentrating photovoltaics and highlights the challenges and makes recommendations for future development.