Diagnostic prospects and preclinical development of optical technologies using gold nanostructure contrast agents to boost endogenous tissue contrast
Numerous developments in optical biomedical imaging research utilizing gold nanostructures as contrast agents have advanced beyond basic research towards demonstrating potential as diagnostic tools; some of which are translating into clinical applications. Recent advances in optics, lasers and detection instrumentation along with the extensive, yet developing, knowledge-base in tailoring the optical properties of gold nanostructures has significantly improved the prospect of near-infrared (NIR) optical detection technologies. Of particular interest are optical coherence tomography (OCT), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and surface enhanced spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SESORS), due to their respective advancements. Here we discuss recent technological developments, as well as provide a prediction of their potential to impact on clinical diagnostics. A brief summary of each techniques' capability to distinguish abnormal (disease sites) from normal tissues, using endogenous signals alone is presented. We then elaborate on the use of exogenous gold nanostructures as contrast agents providing enhanced performance in the above-mentioned techniques. Finally, we consider the potential of these approaches to further catalyse advances in pre-clinical and clinical optical diagnostic technologies.