High-yield gram-scale organic synthesis using accelerated microdroplet/thin film reactions with solvent recycling†
A closed system has been designed to perform microdroplet/thin film reactions with solvent recycling capabilities for gram-scale chemical synthesis. Claisen–Schmidt, Schiff base, Katritzky and Suzuki coupling reactions show acceleration factors relative to bulk of 15 to 7700 times in this droplet spray system. These values are much larger than those reported previously for the same reactions in microdroplet/thin film reaction systems. The solvent recycling mode of the new system significantly improves the reaction yield, especially for reactions with smaller reaction acceleration factors. The microdroplet/thin film reaction yield improved on recycling from 33% to 86% and from 32% to 72% for the Katritzky and Suzuki coupling reactions, respectively. The Claisen–Schmidt reaction was chosen to test the capability of this system in gram scale syntheses and rates of 3.18 g per h and an isolated yield of 87% were achieved.