Traditional uses, chemical components and pharmacological activities of the genus Ganoderma P. Karst.: a review†
In recent years, some natural products isolated from the fungi of the genus Ganoderma have been found to have anti-tumor, liver protection, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. This review summarizes the research progress of some promising natural products and their pharmacological activities. The triterpenoids, meroterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum and other species of Ganoderma were reviewed, including their corresponding chemical structures and biological activities. In particular, the triterpenes, polysaccharides and meroterpenoids of Ganoderma show a wide range of biological activities. Among them, the hydroxyl groups on the C-3, C-24 and C-25 positions of the lanostane triterpenes compound were the necessary active groups for the anti-HIV-1 virus. Previous study showed that lanostane triterpenes can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease with an IC50 value of 20–40 μM, which has potential anti-HIV-1 activity. Polysaccharides can promote the production of TNF α and IFN-γ by macrophages and spleen cells in mice, and further inhibit or kill tumor cells. Some meroterpenoids contain oxygen-containing heterocycles, and they have significant antioxidant activity. In addition, Ganoderma has been used as a medicine to treat diseases for more than 2000 years, and we also reviewed its traditional uses.