Targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) with structurally diverse inhibitors: a comprehensive review
Coronaviruses, which were discovered in 1968, can lead to some human viral disorders, like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related (MERS), and, recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The coronavirus that leads to COVID-19 is rapidly spreading all over the world and is the reason for the deaths of thousands of people. Recent research has revealed that there is about 80% sequence homology between the coronaviruses that cause SARS and COVID-19. Considering this fact, we decided to collect the maximum available information on targets, structures, and inhibitors reported so far for SARS-CoV-1 that could be useful for researchers who work on closely related COVID-19. There are vital proteases, like papain-like protease 2 (PL2pro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), or main protease (Mpro), that are involved in and are essential for the replication of SARS coronavirus and so are valuable targets for the treatment of patients affected by this type of virus. SARS-CoV-1 NTPase/helicase plays an important role in the release of several non-structural proteins (nsps), so it is another essential target relating to the viral life cycle. In this paper, we provide extensive information about diverse molecules with anti-SARS activity. In addition to traditional medicinal chemistry outcomes, HTS, virtual screening efforts, and structural insights for better understanding inhibitors and SARS-CoV-1 target complexes are also discussed. This study covers a wide range of anti-SARS agents, particularly SARS-CoV-1 inhibitors, and provides new insights into drug design for the deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus.