High antiviral activity of mercaptoethane sulfonate functionalized Te/BSA nanostars against arterivirus and coronavirus†
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a kind of cellular adhesion receptor that mediates the attachment and internalization of virus infection. Herein, to mimic the cell surface receptor, mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES), an analogue of HS, was used as the surface modifier to synthesize bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated tellurium nanoparticles (Te/BSA NPs) with a unique triangular star shape (Te/BSA nanostars). Using porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which utilizes HS as a cellular receptor, as a model of arterivirus, we found that Te/BSA nanostars suppressed virus infection mainly by inhibiting the virus internalization process. Interestingly, Te/BSA nanostars exhibited much higher antiviral activity than the spherical Te/BSA NPs (Te/BSA nanospheres), the Te/BSA NPs were synthesized with GSH as a substitute of MES, suggesting that both MES modification and the novel shapes of Te/BSA NPs enhance their antiviral activity. Finally, the antiviral effect of Te/BSA nanostars on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a model of coronavirus, was also demonstrated, indicating the potential broad-spectrum antiviral property of Te/BSA nanostars.
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