Dual-mode response behavior of a graphene oxide implanted energetic system under different thermal stimuli
GO, produced by the Hummers' method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EA), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Fourier-transform infrared nanospectroscopy (nano FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and simultaneous thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry (TG-DSC-MS), was appended to boron/potassium nitrate (B/KNO3) in different proportions, to regulate the response of B/KNO3 to thermal stimuli. The addition of GO delayed the onset temperature of the reaction between B and KNO3, and brought the second reaction stage forward, however, it did not change the reaction mechanism. The integral model functions, which were in good agreement with the values calculated using the Kissinger and Ozawa method, took the form of Jander equations for three-dimensional diffusion processes. Results showing the sensitivity to flame testing demonstrated that the higher the GO content, the more insensitive the system was to temperature, which was consistent with the conclusion of the previous thermal analysis on the onset temperature of the reaction between B and KNO3. In a closed-vessel test, as the GO content increased, the pressure peak and maximum slopes of pressure–time curves increased. Under a thermal stimulus, GO was reduced to RGO, and when the stimulation was small and slow, this helped with heat dissipation and improved safety. If the stimulation was enough to ignite the energetic materials, GO contributed to the rapid attainment of the reaction temperature and sped up the reaction process.