Organic/inorganic nanocomposites for cancer immunotherapy
Cancer immunotherapy provides an effective way to deal with cancer. Although immunotherapy strategies have shown encouraging therapeutic effects, the inherent limitations of immunotherapy, such as multiple tumor immune evasion methods, low response rate, and systemic toxicity, still hinder its clinical applications. In recent decades, nanomaterials have been considered promising in cancer immunotherapy since they can realize targeted delivery and interact with the immune system to induce or enhance the antitumor immune responses. Among them, organic/inorganic nanocomposites are ideal candidates for cancer immunotherapy since they could combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic components. Multifunctional organic/inorganic nanocomposites could help overcome the shortcomings of current cancer immunotherapy, and realize the combination of immunotherapy and other therapeutic strategies with synergistic antitumor effects. Herein, we review the recent progress of organic/inorganic nanocomposites designed for cancer immunotherapy. The immunotherapy strategies of nanocomposites are summarized from the perspective of achieving immune enhancement. The challenges of nanocomposites in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.