The molecular design of and challenges relating to sensitizers for cancer sonodynamic therapy
Sonodynamic therapy is a promising non-invasive treatment approach against malignant tumors. It is believed that sonodynamic therapy is advantageous over conventional photodynamic therapy due to its better penetration abilities. However, the efficacy of sonodynamic therapy is limited by the poor reactive oxygen species generation abilities of current sonosensitizers. To fulfill the unreleased potential of sonodynamic therapy, it is reasonable to optimize the properties of the sonosensitizers according to the basic mechanism of sonodynamic therapy. Here, in this review, the most recent research progress relating to the mechanism of sonodynamic therapy will be emphasized and a series of possible principles for the design of effective sonosensitizers will be proposed. Further challenges relating to the clinical translation of sonodynamic therapy will also be discussed to give a clear picture of the problems that must be overcome.