Aromatic imide/amide-based organic small-molecule emitters for organic light-emitting diodes†
Organic electroluminescent materials play an important role in improving the optoelectronic performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Aromatic imide/amide-based organic small-molecule emitters have caught increasing attention due to their unique properties, such as strong electron-withdrawing characteristics, rigid structures and high-fluorescence quantum yields. In recent years, aromatic imide/amide semiconductors have been developed rapidly, but few reviews have been specially reported on their application in OLEDs. This study classified aromatic imides/amides into maleimide (MAI), phthalimide (PHI), naphthalimide (NAI), perylenediimide (PDI), and other imide/amide units according to their chemical structure to summarize the advances of imide/amide-based organic small-molecule emitters from the perspectives of device performance and molecular design rules over the past 20 years. The luminescence mechanism was also explored. The findings of this study might provide a constructive guide towards future exploration and promote the further development of innovative imide/amide-based emitters.