The role of dipole moment in two fused-ring electron acceptor and one polymer donor based ternary organic solar cells†
Fused-ring electron acceptor (FREA) based ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) have made significant progress and attracted considerable attention due to their simple device architecture and broad absorption range in devices. There are three key parameters that need to be fine-tuned in ternary OSCs including absorption, energy level and morphology in order to realize high efficiencies. Herein, a series of FREAs with diverse electron-rich cores or electron-deficient terminals are developed and rationally combined to achieve high performance ternary OSCs. The dipole moment of FREAs’ terminals has been unveiled as an important factor and its working mechanism has been thoroughly investigated by systematically studying six ternary OSCs. These ternary blends all exhibit complementary absorption and cascade energy levels, which can facilitate efficient light-harvesting and charge transfer. Additionally, the morphological effects on ternary OSCs are eliminated through comparative studies while demonstrating distinctively different performance. The preliminary results show that compatible dipole moment between two FREAs is critical in ternary blends. Specifically, the performance of the ternary system with two FREAs having quite different dipole moment terminals is worse compared to that with similar terminal dipole moments. The pair with larger difference in the dipole moment will also negatively impact device performance. This interesting phenomenon is likely due to the fact that very different dipole moments of terminals in FREAs can significantly decrease the electron mobility as well as induce unbalanced hole/electron transport. Consequently, it results in increased charge recombination and reduced charge collection efficiency. This finding demonstrates that the dipole moment of FREAs should be taken into account in designing ternary OSCs.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Organic Electronics