Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Multi-Shelled Hollow Nanostructures
Multi-shelled hollow nanostructures have attracted considerable research interest owing to their unique structure features, promising properties as well as fascinating performance in relevant applications. During the past decades, considerable progress has been achieved in synthesis of multi-shelled hollow nanostructures by accurate controlling their geometric morphology, chemical composition; thickness, the number of the shells and their applications in various fields. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview on the recently used synthetic approaches towards multi-shelled hollow nanostructures. For a comprehensive review, the synthetic approaches have been classified into four categories i.e. hard template approach, soft template approach, self-template approach, and template-free approach based on template/structure directing agent used. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach were also pointed out by comparing with one another. Furthermore, the fascinating performances of multi-shelled hollow nanostructures, application in energy conversion and storage, environment remediation, chemical catalysis, and biomedicine are comprehensively summarized. Combining some typical examples and related theoretical analysis, the relationship between the structure of multi-shelled hollow nanomaterials and their specific application performance in related areas was highlighted. At the end, the emerging challenges and future prospective of the Multi-Shelled Hollow Nanostructures in future research and development were outlined.