Water-based non-isocyanate polyurethane-ureas (NIPUUs)
Non-isocyanate polyurethane-ureas (NIPUUs) are a greener alternative to the traditional isocyanate-based polyurethane-ureas. These materials are synthesized by transurethanization and aminolysis of cyclic carbonates, commonly performed in solvents and in bulk. For several reasons including scalability, properties and environmental impact, there is growing interest in developing water-based NIPUUs. This review aims at discussing the achievements and the remaining challenges in the development of water-soluble NIPUUs, NIPUU-based hydrogels and water-borne NIPUU dispersions.