Mechanofluorochromism of pyrene-derived amidophosphonates†
Aiming to develop a library of organic mechanofluorochromic (MFC) materials, solid-state emission properties of pyrene-derivatives with amidophosphonate groups (diethyl 1-(pyrene-1-carboxamido)alkylphosphonates, alkyl: methyl, isopropyl, phenyl) were investigated. All of these compounds were found to show strong blue fluorescence, and blue-to-green emission shift was identified upon grinding. Monomer and several excimer emissive species were identified by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence investigations. The characteristic green-to-blue thermal back reaction was observed even at room temperature without additives, which would be related to the flexibility of side groups for molecular rearrangement. We here demonstrated that the pyrene-derived compounds can be attractive platforms to host MFC properties.