Synthesis of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylallosamine resorcinarene-based multivalent β-thio-glycoclusters: unexpected affinity of N-acetylallosamine ligands towards Wheat Germ Agglutinin†
Herein, we report the synthesis of calixresorcinarene-based multivalent ligands bearing β-S-GlcNAc and β-S-AllNAc recognition elements. A clickable β-S-AllNAc derivative was successfully prepared from a β-thioalkynyl GlcNAc precursor, making use of a 2,3-oxazoline intermediate, easily formed by intramolecular displacement of a triflate group located at the 3-position by the 2-N-acetate group. By reaction of these alkynyl-functionalized derivatives with an octaazido-calixresorcinarene macrocycle having undecyl chains, two octavalent glycoclusters exposing the epimeric N-acetylhexosamines were obtained. In addition, a related calixresorcinarene-based glycocluster having methyl groups instead of undecyl chains and β-S-GlcNAc residues was also synthesized. After an initial evaluation of the interaction of the undecyl-functionalized β-S-GlcNAc octavalent derivative with Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) by a turbidimetry experiment, the interaction of the three synthesized glycoclusters towards WGA was studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. The results showed a favorable effect due to the presence of the undecyl chains in terms of affinity. Surprisingly, the β-S-AllNAc octavalent compound showed the highest affinity among the evaluated glycoclusters, showing for the first time that WGA interacts with β-AllNAc-bearing ligands. Molecular docking studies of β-AllNAc with WGA in comparison with β-GlcNAc contributed to the understanding of the atomic interactions responsible for this unexpected affinity.
- This article is part of the themed collections: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry HOT article collection, Synthetic methodology in OBC and Supramolecular chemistry in OBC