Recent advances in two-photon absorbing probes based on a functionalized dipolar naphthalene platform
Two-photon microscopy (TPM) techniques have been highlighted over the past two decades throughout various fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. In particular, the two-photon near-infrared excitation of fluorophores or molecular probes emitting fluorescence have ushered in a new biomedical era, specifically in the deep-tissue imaging of biologically relevant species. Non-linear two-photon optics enables the development of 3D fluorescence images via focal point excitation of biological samples with low photo-damage and photo-bleaching. Many studies have disclosed the relationship between the chemical structure of fluorophores and their two-photon absorbing properties. In this review, we have summarized the recent advances in two-photon absorbing probes based on a functionalized electron donor (D)–acceptor (A) type dipolar naphthalene platform (FDNP) that was previously reported between 2015 and 2019. Our systematic outline of the synthesis, photophysical properties, and examples of two-photon imaging applications will provide useful context for the future development of new naphthalene backbone-based two-photon probes.