Synthesis of indolo- and pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalinones through a palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of the C2 position of indole†
A methodology that involves the Pd-catalyzed direct C(sp2)–H bond carbonylation of the C2 position of indole has been introduced for the synthesis of indolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-6(5H)-ones. The methodology developed herein was used for the synthesis of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4(5H)-ones. The reaction of N-substituted 2-(1H-indol-1-yl)anilines or 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)anilines and carbon monoxide in the presence of Pd(OCOCF3)2 as a catalyst and Cu(OAc)2 as an oxidant in toluene at 80 °C forms the corresponding quinoxalinones as exclusive products in good yields. The catalytically active C–H activated intermediate Pd complex was isolated and characterized for the first time which on exposure to CO gas in toluene at 80 °C gave the corresponding quinoxalinone derivative. On the basis of isolation of the intermediate, a possible mechanism has been proposed for the C–H activated direct carbonylative annulation of 2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-1-yl)-N,4-dimethylaniline.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Catalysis & biocatalysis in OBC